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Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world. Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.
The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.
Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losec , an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca.
A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.
Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden.
Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.
The European Spallation Source, costing some SEK 14 billion to construct,  will begin initial operations in with construction completion scheduled for The ESS will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.
Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension.
Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension.
There are several types of pensions in Sweden: national retirement, occupational and private pensions. A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.
The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, in March The average population density is just over 25 people per km 2 65 per square mile , with 1 persons per km 2 in localities continuous settlement with at least inhabitants.
The capital city Stockholm has a municipal population of about , with 1. The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö.
Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund. The Öresund Region , the Danish-Swedish cross-border region around the Öresund that Malmö is part of, has a population of 4 million.
Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.
The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish,   a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.
Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.
The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish.
The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.
However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli , Sami , Romani , and Yiddish.
Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July , when a new language law was implemented. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.
English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.
Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.
Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.
With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century.
After the Protestant Reformation in the s, a change led by Martin Luther 's Swedish associate Olaus Petri , the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread.
Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.
With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.
However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.
Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.
The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the law on freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.
Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children and adults who are christened become members.
Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.
The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey.
Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , .
Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.
Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.
It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option.
The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients. Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish : förskola or, colloquially, dagis.
Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school. The school system is largely financed by taxes.
The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally  by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.
Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.
There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.
The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.
Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.
The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.
There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.
This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded. In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.
Immigrants in Sweden are mostly concentrated in the urban areas of Svealand and Götaland. The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: .
According to an official investigation by The Swedish Pensions Agency on order from the government, the immigration to Sweden will double the state's expenses for pensions to the population.
The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes.
Swedish 20th-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.
More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson , Lasse Hallström , and Ruben Östlund have received international recognition.
Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.
The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.
Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage ,  Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. As of , Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.
Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites.
The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums. Sweden has a significant folk-music scene.
There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality. Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition.
Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.
During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.
Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.
As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalby , but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malmö and Helsingborg.
Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.
In the foundations of the Linköping Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone , but the building took some years to finish.
Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Borgholm Castle , Halltorps Manor and Eketorp fortress on the island Öland, the Nyköping fortress and the Visby city wall.
Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.
In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo. Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.
The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.
The Ericsson Globe is the largest hemispherical building on Earth, Shaped like a large white ball, and took two and a half years to build.
It's located in Stockholm. Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper.
The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter liberal , Göteborgs-Posten liberal , Svenska Dagbladet liberal conservative and Sydsvenska Dagbladet liberal.
The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal. The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden.
The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local liberal. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.
Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.
Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.
The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.
TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.
Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in The first literary text from Sweden is the Rök runestone , carved during the Viking Age c.
With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.
Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.
With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.
Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.
The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, Nobel laureate , Verner von Heidenstam Nobel laureate and Pär Lagerkvist Nobel laureate In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.
The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking , Emil , and others.
In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.
Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.
They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice ; Walpurgis Night Valborgsmässoafton on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations.
The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.
Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor crayfish dinner parties.
The Sami , one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.
Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.
Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Spices were sparse.
Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.
The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming a fermented fish in northern Sweden and eel in southern Sweden.
Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, are still an important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.
In August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, kräftskiva , Swedes eat large amounts of crayfish boiled with dill. Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years.
Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström.
These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.
Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities.
The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports of which most of the participants are women have the highest number of practitioners.
Thereafter, golf , orienteering , gymnastics , track and field , and the team sports of ice hockey , handball , floorball , basketball and bandy are the most popular in terms of practitioners.
The Swedish national men's ice hockey team, affectionately known as Tre Kronor English: Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world.
The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count.
Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.
The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as Carolina Klüft and Stefan Holm.
Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden. The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation. For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation.
Country on the Scandinavian peninsula. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Finnish Meänkieli Sami Romani Yiddish. Swedish Swede. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
Main article: Name of Sweden. Main article: History of Sweden. Main article: Prehistoric Sweden. See also: History of Sweden —present. Main article: Geography of Sweden.
See also: Wildlife of Sweden. Main article: Politics of Sweden. Main articles: List of political parties in Sweden and Elections in Sweden.
Main articles: Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Main article: Judiciary of Sweden. Main article: Foreign relations of Sweden.
Main article: Economy of Sweden. Main article: Transport in Sweden. See also: Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden. Main article: Swedish inventions.
Main article: Taxation in Sweden. Main article: Social security in Sweden. Main articles: Demographics of Sweden and Swedes. Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ".
Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 11 July Main articles: Swedish language and Languages of Sweden.
See also: Swedish dialects. Main article: Religion in Sweden. Main article: Education in Sweden. Main article: Immigration to Sweden.
Main article: Crime in Sweden. Further information: Bombings in Sweden and Rape in Sweden. Main article: Culture of Sweden. Main article: Music of Sweden.
Main article: Architecture of Sweden. Main article: Media in Sweden. Main article: Swedish literature. Main article: Public holidays in Sweden.
Main article: Swedish cuisine. Main article: Cinema of Sweden. Main article: Sport in Sweden. Sweden portal. Royal Court of Sweden. Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 22 December The Riksdag.
Retrieved 24 October Church of Sweden Svenska kyrkan. Retrieved 8 August Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 12 December Archived from the original on 15 January Retrieved 6 August Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 6 November International Monetary Fund.
Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 3 July United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 10 November The Local. Archived from the original on 10 December Retrieved 15 July Swedish Language Council.
Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Statistics Sweden. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot.
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Swedish Swede. Five other languages are officially recognised as minority languages :  Finnish , Meänkieli , Romani , Sami , and Yiddish. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.
See also: Sweden at the Olympics and Sweden national football team. Royal Court of Sweden. Retrieved 22 December Retrieved 6 August Statistics Sweden.
Retrieved 19 September International Monetary Fund. Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 14 October United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 23 March Swedish Language Council. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 22 June Archived from the original on 17 March Retrieved 9 June Moreover, people born in Sweden may not be ethnic Swedes.
As the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity , there are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden.
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Ahh, last but not least…soccer! Enjoy the wild energy that radiates from the stands at a soccer game or go on stadium tours in London at the famous Wembley Stadium and Emirates Stadium.
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